Acknowledging that different phrases fit different languages to different extents, the following guide is intended to give you a “feeling” of the questionnaire you are about to translate. We would like to ask you to first read this manual and then proceed with the translation. In this manual, words in italics represent quotations from the questionnaire to be translated.
Three points pertaining to the entire questionnaire follow:
- Please make sure that both genders be represented in each question. In English, “scientists” refers to both men and women; in other languages (such as Greek), there are different words for “men scientists” and for “women.” If your language falls in this category, please include both words in each item. For instance, in item 4 (Part I), the intended meaning is “In their research, men scientists and women scientists are influenced by conditions…”
- Please make sure that the questions refer to natural sciences only. While in English “science” is used to refer to “natural sciences” only, in other languages such an explanation may be needed, to distinguish, from instance, from social sciences. If such an issue arises in your language, please make sure that you refer to “natural science” in particular. On the other hand, although there are more than one “natural sciences” (such as physics and chemistry), the questionnaire is intended to refer to all of them (or to whichever the participant finds applicable).
- In the first versions of the questionnaire, we used different phrasing for participants of different age groups. However, the result was mostly confusion for the older participants. Therefore, this final version is one and the same for all age groups. This should be kept in mind when translating items in your language. These should be phrased so that the questionnaire is accessible to 10 year olds or older participants.
What follows is a number of explanations concerning specific aspects of the questionnaire.
This leaflet is not a knowledge test, but just a questionnaire. In this kind of questionnaires, there is no right or wrong answer. Different persons may give different answers. Please, answer honestly the questions in this and the following pages.
It is important to stress that the questionnaire to be completed is not intended to evaluate the participants’ knowledge and is, thus, not related to their evaluation by the teachers. Because it is NOT a knowledge test, answers are not “right” or “wrong” but may be “different.” As people differ in many ways, their answers may also be different (for instance, some people believe that French fries are their favorite food, while others do not – there is nothing wrong with either answer).
Therefore, looking for the “right” answer is not something of interest for us. For us, it is more important to have honest answers representing what the participants really believe and not what they think that their teacher would like them to believe. This is the general background out of which the overall instructions emerged.
Thank you very much!
Please make sure you include a “thank you” note at the beginning of this leaflet.
For each of the following sentences, mark with an X the box that best corresponds how much you agree or disagree with the sentence. The possible answers are: “no”, “rather no”, “not sure”, “rather yes” and “yes”.
This part includes 22 statements. The participants are asked to mark a box using an X or other appropriate sign to show how much they agree or disagree with each statement. The answers are given on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Please use any format of the answers continuum that is appropriate for your language, as long as it has 5 options ranging from “totally disagree” to “totally agree” (or other appropriate extremes).
- In science, most questions have only one right answer.
- If you read something in a science book, then it is certainly true.
- Science helps us understand the world.
- In their research, scientists are influenced by the conditions of their time. For example, by economy, politics, religion, arts.
- In their research, scientists are influenced by the conditions of their lives. For example, by their family, their financial condition, the place where the live.
Do the participants believe that scientific research is “pure,” i.e., not affected by anything but scientific knowledge? Item 4 refers to the historical and social context (macro factors) of scientific research while item 5 refers to micro factors extending only to the conditions of the scientist’s life. Examples of macro factors include economy, politics, religion, and arts, while examples of micro factors include family, financial condition, place of residence.
- In science, what is accepted as true remains always the same.
- Different scientists may explain the same thing in different ways.
- When starting their research, scientists have some ideas about their research in their minds in advance.
- How scientists explain something may change in time.
- New scientific interpretations may replace the old ones in the light of new evidence.
- All scientists follow the same scientific method.
- Scientists do research in different ways.
- Science helps to make our lives healthier, easier and more comfortable.
- Science is the same all over the world.
- Science is only for men.
- Science is only for women.
- Science is only for clever people.
- The things we learn from science may help us make decisions in everyday life.
- We all need to know something about science, no matter whether we need it in our work or not.
- The way scientists work is influenced by what other people consider important.
- The way scientists work is influenced by what other people want.
- We are all responsible for the way scientific research results are used in everyday life.
This part of the questionnaire has a different format than the previous one. Here, each item consists of two sentences that describe two contrasting types of persons. The aim of such a format is to reduce the effects of social desirability: An individual may be more like one or more like the other kind of persons, and both kinds of persons are common. The instructions describe a two-fold process in answering this part of the questionnaire: First, the person decides which of the two contrasting kinds of persons resembles him/her more (the one on the left or the one on the right side), and, second, decides how much this kind of person resembles him. Thus, in each line, only one box should be marked (either on the left or on the right side).
In the following items, we refer to science in three ways:
- “in science courses” refers to all work (including class work, home work, or personal thinking) related to science courses
- “during science courses” refers to class work only
- “in science” refers to the field of knowledge related to science, no matter whether this knowledge comes from science courses or other sources.
Only the type on the left is explained further down. The type on the right is the same with a negation added or removed as appropriate.
- Some people like finding out by themselves what to do in science courses but other people do not like finding out by themselves what to do in science courses.
- Some people do not like their teacher telling them what to do in science courses
- Some people like finding out by themselves what happens in science courses
- Some people like working alone in science courses
- Some people do not like working with friends in science courses
- Some people do not like discussing their ideas with their teacher during their science course
- Some people like discussing their ideas with their friends during their science courses
- Some people find it difficult to discover new things in science courses
- Some people believe that they have to do too much work in science courses.
- Some people do very well in science courses.
- For some people, science is one of their favorite courses.
- Some people believe that they are as good in science as their peers.
- Some people find it difficult to understand anything related to science.
- Some people do not like science courses at all.